Zulu Grammar

THE ISIZULU: A REVISED EDITION OF A Grammar of the Zulu Language; By Rev. Lewis GROUT,

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Wednesday, 17 April 2019

Collocation of Zulu Words


CHAPTER VIII.
COLLOCATION OF WORDS.

§ 540. In respect to the arrangement of words, we know of no language which allows of greater freedom than the Isizulu. The wonderfully Reflective character of the language provides for the greatest, and most varied inversion. But after the numerous direct, and incidental remarks, which have been made upon the subject, in various parts of the Grammar, it will not be necessary to repeat, or add much in this place. A few general rules, however, together with examples in illustration, may be of service,

§ 541. 1. The noun-subject may either precede or follow the verb, though more frequently the former; thus,
Abantu bakhala, the people complain; kwafika umuntu, there came a person.
2. The verb and its pronominal subject often occupy the first place; and when the notional verb is required in a subsequent part of the sentence, an affirmation is often made at the beginning, by the use of ukuthi; thus,
Bafika lapha abafundisi;
They came here teachers, — that is, teachers came here.
Kwathi kwenye indao yafunyana abanye;
It did at another place it found others.
Wathi izinceku zenkosi zikaDingane e be zi zisile, zathi sezi mukile, wa ceba icebo ;
He did— when the servants of Dingane, which brought them, when they had departed, he planned a plan.
3. The object generally follows, but sometimes precedes the verb; thus,
Abantu babopha umzimba wodwa; inhliziyo abayibophanga ;
The people bound the body only ; the heart they did not bind.
§ 542. Sometimes both nouns, subject and object, stand together before the verb, and sometimes together after the verb, the subject preceding the object; thus,
Usutu abantu lu ba qedile ;
The Sutu regiment has made an end of the people.
Induna umkumbu ya wu sondeza osebeni ;
The captain brought the ship to land.
Inkosi abantu ya be i ba nikile izinkomo ;
The king the people had given cattle, —that is, the king had given cattle to the people.
U gwazwa njalo Utyaka Udingane ;
Thus was Chaka killed by Dingane.

Sathi sibuyela kwa Soshengane wa se e m bulele Udingane Utshaka;
On our return from Soshengane (we found that) Dingane had already killed Chaka.
§ 543. 1. Modifiers usually follow the noun or verb which they modify; thus,
Umfana wami, my boy ; umuzi wabantu, village of the people; umuntu olungileyo, a person who is good; wakhala kakhulu, he cried hard; bafika lapha, they arrived here.

2. But when prominence is to be given to the modifier of a noun, the modifier is sometimes put before the noun; thus,
Owami umfana;
My own boy. (§ 454.)
Wo! lukhulu uthando lukaTixo, oluphezu kwethu;
Oh, how great is the love of God, which is over us!


Syntax of Zulu Sentences


CHAPTER VII.
SYNTAX OF SENTENCES.

§ 531. The following examples are given, not only in further illustration of the use of conjunctions, and of the manner in which their use is often dispensed with, in Isizulu; but also in further illustration of the different kinds of sentences, and of the remarks concerning them, as already given in the first chapter of Syntax.
§ 532. I. Co-ordinate Copulative Sentences —
Izwe labo lihle, linemithi; Their country is beautiful, and wooded.
Safika, sahlala kwa za kwa linywa futhi, saze sawadla lawa 'mabele; We arrived, and dwelt until they dug again, and then we ate that grain.
§ 533. II. Co-ordinate Adversative Sentences —
Bafika lapha abafundisi; bahlala bahlala iminyaka, kungakholwa abantu ; nokho abasheshanga ukwemuka; Missionaries arrived here; they remained many years, but nobody believed; yet they did not hasten to depart.
Inkosi yathi, niyakuze niyokubathabatha, sebekhulile; benqabakhe, bathi, ayi, 'nkosi, nathi siyakuzikulisela; The king said, ye shall go and bring them, when they are grown; but they declined, saying, not so, O king, but we will grow them for ourselves.
Kuthiwa, (inkomo) ibizwa uyise, kanti ayibizwanga;
It is said, the cow was demanded by his paternal shade, whereas it was not demanded.
Ukuma wabengitshenile, ngakube kusekhona; sengaze ngakwona; If he had told me, it would have been here; but I have been and disposed of it.
Abantu babopha umzimba wodwa; inhliziyo abayibophanga ; Men bound the body only; the heart they did not bind.
Anizanga nibabone; kanti niy'azi ukuba babe khona, ngokuba niyabona abakwenzileyo;
You never saw them; and yet you know they were here, because you see what they have done.
Nokho zincane, kodwa zinesineke ;
Though they are small, yet have they wisdom.
§ 534. III. Co-ordinate Disjunctive Sentences —
Utixo uyasiyaleza ukuba silalele abazali bethu, sikhulume iqiniso; lo 'mtwana akukho akwenzayo;
God commands us to obey our parents, and speak the truth; but this child did neither. *
Inkumbulo yazizela khona na? qa ; ku njenga lokhu le 'ndlu ingazizelanga;
Did the mind come here by chance (literally, of, or for itself) ? No; no more than this house came here by chance.
Ngiyaqinisa, angikwambi, njenga lokhu nging' ambi ukuba lo 'mfana unamehlo amabili ;
I am sure I can no more doubt it than I can doubt this boy to have two eyes.
U mi kubi ku nokuba alahle ingalo neso ; yebo, u mi kubi ku nokuba alahle ukwazi, afakwe emlilweni;
He is worse off than if he were to lose an arm or an eye; yes, worse off than if he were to lose his reason, or be put into the fire.
Angabe esaba na'sihlobo ezulwini, angabe esaba na'sihlobo 'ndao ; okukhulu ukuba engasayikuba na'sihlobo;
He has not a friend in heaven, nor anywhere else ; and, what is more, he never will have a friend.
§ 535. lV. Co-ordinate Causal Sentences —
Inkosi yathi, Wo! umuzi ukufanele nje na? ukuba usale, uthathe abantu beze kuwe, babengabakho na? loku 'zinkomo ka zisekho na?
The king said, indeed! would (not) a kraal just suit you? so that you could remain, and receive people, who should come to you, and be yours? since there are no longer any cattle?
Loku niyabona nje base 'zingane, niya kuze niyokuba tabata, sebekhulile;
Since you just see they are yet children, you will go and bring them, when they are grown.
Wathi, ai, inkomo ka i nako ukuthengeka kahle, ngokuba abantu sebetyaya umbila;
He said, no, a cow does not pay well, because the people now set a higher value on maize.
§ 536. V. Subordinate Substantive Sentences —
Kwathi ngasemva kwelinye ihlobo, kwafika ukuthi, inkosi iyawela;
It came to pass after another summer, there came word that the chief is crossing the river.
Kwathi ngasemva, kwahlaluka ukuthi, Unongalaza ubulewe;
It came to pass afterwards, that news came, saying, Nongalaza has been killed.
Niyabona ukuba base'zingane ;
You see that they are still children,
Ka s'azi ukuma uyakuzuza na ?
We do not know whether you will succeed.
Loko kuyasibonisa isineke, ukuba siy' ahlula izinto zonke;
That shows us thought, how it excels all things.
Akwaziwa uma iyakuphila noma iyakufa ;
It is not certain whether it will live or die.
Umfana uyacela kuyise ukuba amkwelise ehashini;
The boy asks his father to put him on the horse.
§ 537. VI. Subordinate Adjective Sentences —
Kuthe, sekuza kulinywa okunye, kwahlalukake isipihlika esiciteke ngaso;
It came to pass, just as they were about to plant again, then there broke out the war by which we were wasted.
S' onile na sovalweni Iwethu olumi eduze, Iulonda, Iuyala lapha s' onayo; na kuyena Utixo, o 'zimemezelo zakhe si z'apula;
We have sinned, both against our conscience which stands by, watches, and reproves when we sin; and against God himself, whose commandments we break.
Safika sakudla loku 'kudla esakushiyayo ku linyiwe;
We arrived and ate that food which we left planted.
Siqinisile ukuba zikhona izinto ezweni esingazanga sizibone na?
Are we sure that there are things in the world which we have never seen?
§ 538. VII. Subordinate Adverbial Sentences: —
1. Of place —
Bazihambisa lapha bethanda khona;
They betake themselves there where they please.
2. Of time—
Ngafika kwithi lapha ku linywayo;
I reached home while they were planting.
Kwathi ngasemva inxatyana kulinywayo, yafikake inkosi ya buza ezincekwini;
It came to pass just after they began to dig, the king came and inquired of the servants.
3. Of manner —
Kukhona amasonjwana amaningana, songathi akwenziwanga ngesandhla somuntu;
There are very small wheels, so little as scarcely to be made by the hand of man.
Umuntu okholwayo uhamba njengomuntu ehamba endaweni e nameva; ngokuba umuntu ehamba emeveni uyabekisisa abeke izinyao; akaqalazeli nje njengomuntu ehamba ebaleni;
A person who believes walks like a man walking in a thorny place; for a man walking among thorns looks carefully where he puts his feet; he does not look abroad everywhere like one who walks in a clear place.
Kwangathi ngibuyela emva esikathini sokububa kwakhe;
It was as if I had gone back to the time of his death.
4. Of causality; — {a.) Conditional —
Uma kungabonanga kubonwa umuntu le 'mizi, nibe ning' azi ukuba ikhona imizi njalo na ?
Now suppose those kraals had never been seen by anybody, could you know there were such kraals?
(b.) Concessive —
Noma lihamba lodwa lihaqiwe izitha;
Although he goes alone he is surrounded by foes.
Nokuba behlekisa kuyena, akungena ngalokho enhliziyweni yakhe;
Although they laughed at him, yet that did not enter into his heart.
(c.) Telic—
Impela le indhlu ayenzelwanga ukuba ilalwe;
Of course this house was not made for a bed-room, — literally, that it be slept in.
Thandazani ukuba anilinde ekwoneni;
Pray that he may keep you from sinning.

§ 539. VIII. Incidental Sentences —
Sasuswa lapho, se si quty wa ngemikontho, kuthiwa sonke sizakulandela Umawa; saye s' aka khwela kwa Hlangezwa;
We were removed from thence, being driven with spears, it being said we were all going to follow Mawa; and we built in the district of Hlangezwa.
Kwathi ngemva, inkosi yathi, abantu bami, kwa bekuhlaliwa ngabo, kuthiwa bazakumuka noMawa, phindelani khona ezweni lenu, niyo kwaka khona;
And afterwards the king said, my people,— they remained behind, it being said they were about to depart with Mawa, — return ye to your own country, and build there.
Sahlala kwaza kwa linywa futhi, saze sawadla lawa 'mabele, sisahlezi khona emakhaya;
We remained till they dug again, and then we ate that grain, we still remaining; there at home.
(Impi) yabuthanake, yaphuma, iya kwa Sikwata;
It (the army) accordingly assembled, and went out, going to Sikwata.
Sithe sisahlezi incozana, lapha inyanga yetwasayo, kwafika ukuthi, Isanqu siyabizwa;
And while we were waiting a little, until the moon waxed, there came word that the Sanku regiment is called.
Loku siyafika, sivela Emdhloti, sisalima inhlabakanye;
Since our arrival— we come from the Umhloti — we have as yet planted only one season.
Ngikhala ngatyetya ngasuka kuye, kwangathi ngingafa;
Sobbing, I rushed from him, and thought I wished to die.
Kumi kanjani ukuba ngihlabe inkomo yami, kuthiwa ibizwe ngobaba, ngingazenga sinda na?
With me how is it that I offer my cow,— it is said it is required by my paternal shade,— and yet I never recover.

Syntax of the Zulu Particle


CHAPTER VI.
SYNTAX OF THE PARTICLE.
§ 523. GENERAL Remarks. — The adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection, are often grouped, as here, and put under the general head of particles. In the signification and use of this class of words, the interjection excepted, are involved some of the nicest shades of meaning, and most important turns of thought.
In addition to what has been said of their nature and form, under the head of Etymology, an indirect, though comparatively full illustration of their use has been given in connection with other parts of Syntax, especially in the discussion of propositions and sentences (§§ 335- 373.) : in remarks upon the use of the accusative after prepositions (§§393-400.); also upon the manner of denoting degrees (§§417-426.); and upon the idiomatic use of verbs (§§ 509-522). After making a few observations upon some of their more important peculiarities, in further development of their use and construction, and also of the manner in which their use is often dispensed with in the Isizulu, a series of examples will be given, arranged in groups according to the several kinds of propositions and sentences, and according to the discussion already given in the first chapter of Syntax.
§ 524. In the Isizulu, as in other languages, the different classes of particles often blend with each other in their use.
Hence —
1. Adverbs sometimes take a case, as prepositions. Of this class are katyana, kude, kanye. (See § 329.)
2. Prepositions are sometimes used without a case, as adverbs. Of this class are phansi, phakathi, and some others.
3. The same particle is sometimes used as an adverb, and sometimes as a conjunction, — or as a connective, and as a non-connective, such as kodwa, ukuba, ukuma.
§ 525. Both adverbs, and prepositions with their cases, are often used substantively; also, an adverb and a preposition governing it are sometimes written together as a compound word : —
1. Adverbs used as a noun ; thus,
Umhlanga wakhona ufana nezinti zesiswebu, awufani nowa lapha ;
The reed of there (i.e., of that country) resembles whip-sticks, it does not resemble that of here (i.e., of this place).
2. A preposition and its case may be used sometimes as a noun; thus, usuku Iwa namhla, this day, i.e., the day of to-day; umsebenzi wa ngomso, the work of tomorrow; abantu bakwaZulu, the people of Zululand.
3. An adverb and a preposition may be written together as a compound word; thus, nakanye, at once, never ; naphakade, for ever.

A.— THE ADVERB.

§ 526. Adverbs modify sentences, phrases, and words, particularly verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs; thus,
Bakhala kakhulu, they complain greatly; akana ‘sineke nakanye, he has no care at all ; wafuna abantu, nembala wabathola, he sought peo-ple, and verily he found them ; abelungu banezibindi ezinkulu kakhulu, white people have very great courage ; wabuya waya emva kakhulu, he turned and went far back.

B.-THE PREPOSITION.

§ 527. Prepositions are followed by nouns in the oblique cases, chiefly by the accusative, but sometimes by the genitive or the locative.
1. The genitive is governed by the preposition ka; or by the genitive particle a, united with the preformative of the governing noun; and occasionally by some other preposition. (See §§382-391.)^
2. The accusative is governed by prepositions of various kinds. (See §§393-4:00.)
3. The locative is sometimes found in regimen with a preposition. (See §§ 402., 403.)
§ 528. A few of the prepositions, as ku, ka, kwa, na, and nga, may be used each alone, i. e., singly; thus,
Kuye, to him; naye, with him ; ka mina, of me. But in respect to others, for the most part, each preposition requires a complement; thus, eduze nabo. near to them; emva kwabo, in rear of them; malungana nabo, opposite to them ; phezu kwabo, above them.
Rem. — (a.) Doubtless those prepositions which require a complement were first used as nouns ;— some in the locative case, as, eduze, emva, or emveni, etc.; and some in the accusative, and governed by other prepositions, as, nganeno (nga and neno), phakathi (pa and kathi, umkathi), phezulu (pha and izulu).
(b.) But those nouns, in passing from notional to relational words, still retain the use of the preposition (as na, ku, wa, etc.,) which was first used to show the relation of one noun to another; thus, eduze nentaba, in contiguity with a mountain, i. e., near a mountain ; emva kwomuti, or emveni womiiti, in the rear of a tree, i. e., behind a tree. And these substantival prepositions, or prepositional substantives, are not only followed by a complemental preposition, but also often preceded or governed by a preposition; thus, ngaseduze nentaba, ngasemva kwomuthi.
(c.) The use of ngenxa (nga and inxa), as itself a preposition, together with the complement nga before a noun in the locative, or the genitive particle a with the preformative y of inxa (i-a = ya), — is a good illustration of the transitional process above stated. The noun inxa, in ngenxa, is sometimes used as an abridged form of the plural izinxa; thus, we may have ngenxa yonke = on every side ; or ngenxa zonke = on all sides. And this word may be used either with the locative, taking nga as a complement ; thus, ngenxa ngasemuthini, round about the tree; or with the genitive, taking its preformative y or z with a (= ya or za) as a complement; thus, ngenxa yami, on my account ; ngenxa yezono, on account of sin.

C— THE CONJUNCTION.

§ 529. Conjunctions are used to connect propositions and sentences; thus,
Futhi, siy'esaba ukuba Umpande uyakuthukuthela ;
Again, we are afraid that Umpande will be angry.
Ubulula abantu nemizi yabo ;
It destroys people and their towns.
Rem. — The conjunction na often has the appearance of connecting single words; but a careful analysis will show that in such cases we must either regard the construction as elliptical, or consider na as a preposition = with ; thus, kwafika indoda nomfana, there came a man and a boy, — that is, there came a man, and there came a boy ; or there came a man with a boy; sabeka ngaphambili na ngasemva, we looked before and behind, — that is, we looked before, and we looked behind. (See §493.)

D.— THE INTERJECTION.

§ 530. 1. Some of the interjections are usually addressed to a person, or a thing, and followed by the noun in the vocative form; thus,
Yeti. 'mngani! hail, friend! bayethi, 'nkosi! hail, king! E'baba! O father ! halala, 'bantu ! welcome, people!
2. Some of the interjections are generally construed with ukuthi ', thus,
Babuka, bathi, kexe! .
They looked, and said, wonderful!
Kuthe lusa tyo njalo, Iwa mbetyezwa intulo, ukuthi, iya !
And as he was thus speaking, he received a slap in the face from the lizard, saying, get thee gone !
3. Interjections are sometimes used independent of grammatical construction; thus,
Zikhohlisa 'bani? E! ubuza mina? Ngasabuza isigidi, kuleso, 'mpakati, ha-ha, kuleso ;
Whom do they deceive ? oh ! do you ask me ? Ask the song, that one, comrades, oh yes, that.

Zulu Interjections


CHAPTER IX.
INTERJECTIONS.

§ 333. 1. Like most of the African dialects, the Isizulu abounds in exclamations. Some of these are of a profane character, as, Tshaka, Dingan’ — names of deceased Zulu chiefs. Some are always construed with the verb ukuthi, as, tu, du, or di; twi; nya, — the exact meaning of which depends upon the connection in which they are used, but the general design of which is to give intensity to whatever word or sentence they are attached to; thus,

Thulani nithi du! be perfectly silent; umuti ulungile uthe twi ! the tree is perfectly straight.

2. Many of the exclamations in Isizulu are onomatopoetic, and generally accompanied with some significant gesticulation of the hands or body, or expression of the countenance.

3. Some of the greatest songs of praise, which the natives sing in honor of the dead — the ''amahlozi," or departed heroes — consist of nothing but exclamations ; sometimes a single sound repeated over and over again, as, tshi, tshi, tshi, etc. One of the greatest songs which Dingane and his men used to sing to the shades consisted of nothing but a series of vowel sounds, as — a, o, o, i, e, e, a, o, etc., uttered or sung with diverse slides and with variations upon the musical scale.

§ 334. Most of the interjections which are in general use are included in the following list : —
Awu,                                                                                Oh! alas!
E,                                                                                     O! eigh!
Ehe; he,                                                                           right! just so!
Halala,                                                                             hail! welcome!
Iya; hiya,                                                                         pshaw! away!
Mame; mamo,                                                                 alas! dear me!
Maye; mayi,                                                                    alas! awful!
Mi,                                                                                  attention!
Nci; nxi,                                                                          how sad!
We,                                                                                 ho! behold!
Yebo,                                                                              indeed!
Yethi, plural, bayethi,                                                     hail! glory!
X; xa; xe,                                                                        fie! tush!

Zulu Conjunctions


CHAPTER VIII.
CONJUNCTIONS.

§ 330. The number of conjunctions in the Zulu language is not large. The people, like all "uneducated tribes, incline to the use of short sentences, and to independent phrases. The relation of one proposition, or of one phrase, to another, often depends more upon the general construction, than upon any single word of a conjunctive character. (§ 221., 3.)

§ 331. The words most frequently used as conjunctions are the following: -

Funa (uku funa, to want),                                                                            Lest.
Kandu,                                                                                                         in order that, then.
Kanti,                                                                                                           but, yet, whereas.
Kodwa,                                                                                                        but, only.
Na,                                                                                                               and, also, both.
ngako (nga-oko, for that),                                                                            therefore.
Ngokuba (nga-ukuba),                                                                                 for, because.
Ngokuma (nga—uku-ma),                                                                           for, because.
Njengokuba (nje-nga-uku-ba),                                                                    as.
Noko (na-oko, with that),                                                                             nevertheless.
Noma (na-uma, and if),                                                                                even if, though.
Ukuba (uku ba, to be),                                                                                  that, if, for.
Ukuma (uku-ma, to stand),                                                                          that, if, for.
Ukuze (uku-za, to come),                                                                             that, till.
Uma (uku ma, to stand),                                                                               if, that.
Umhlaumbi (umhla-umbi, § 319., 6.),                                                      or, perhaps.

§ 332. Precise, distinctive words, corresponding to what are sometimes called disjunctive conjunctions, as, or, nor, either, neither,— do not exist in the language. Their place is sometimes supplied by na, nokuba, or umhlaumbi; but more frequently the force of these words is diffused, as it were, throughout the sentence ; thus.

He or I will assist you = yena uyakuku siza uma ungasa sizwanga imina, i.e., he will help you were you not still helped by myself; John or James or Faku intends to go = uma kunge siye uYohane, kungesiye Uyamese, Ufaku uthi uyakuhamha ; he might not read nor walk nor work = angeze afunda angehambe angesebenze. But grammatical points of this kind belong more properly to Syntax.

Zulu Prepositions


CHAPTER VIL
PREPOSITIONS.

§ 326. 1. In the Isizulu, as in many other languages, especially among the African dialects, the same word appears, according to its use and connection, sometimes as an adverb, and sometimes as a preposition, or as a conjunction.

2. Several words, which are used in the twofold capacity of an adverb and a preposition, when they serve as the latter, are always followed by another, as kwa, na ; thus,
Phezu kwomuthi (= kwa-umuthi), upon the tree: eduze nentaba (= na- intaba), near the mountain.

Rem. 1. — The preposition kwa seems to be a compound of the preposition ku and the genitive particle a, the elements of which are still retained in their original separate use in the case of proper nouns, the names of persons; thus, phambi ku kaFaku (a hardened by k), before Faku.

Rem. 2. — This twofold use of prepositions is not peculiar to the Isizulu; neither is the second so superfluous as some might at first suppose. The same, in substance, may be seen in such English words and phrases as up-on, in-to, with-in, near to, near by, before {= by-fore. And the force of each preposition may generally be seen in such Zulu phrases as, eduze nentaba, = near with, near by, or close to the mountain; phezu kwomuthi, = up on, or up to the tree ; pambi ku kaFaku, =opposite to, or in the presence of Faku.

Rem. 3.— The principal preposition is often preceded by nga, which may be used, as in case of the adverbs, not only for euphony, or as an expletive, but also to modify or strengthen the preposition which it precedes ; thus, phezu, above; ngaphezu, over above; phansi, below ; ngaphansi, down below.

§ 327. Most of the Zulu prepositions* are contained in the following list : —

Eduze (na-),                                                          Near.
Emva (kwa-),                                                        behind.
Enhla (na- or kwa-),                                              up, inland.
Ezansi (na- or kwa-),                                             beneath.
Ka (also ba, etc., see § 115.),                                 of.
Ku,                                                                          to, from, with.
Kwa,                                                                        to, from, in, at.
Malungana (na-), (ngoni, malunga)                        opposite.
Nga,                                                                         about, for.
Nganeno (kwa-),                                                      this side of.
Ngenxa (ya- or nga-)                                                on account of.
Phakathi (kwa-),                                                       within.
Phambi (kwa-),                                                         before.
Phansi (kwa-),                                                           under.
Phandle (kwa-),                                                         without.
Phesheya (kwa-);                                                       beyond.
Phezu (kwa-),                                                             upon.
§ 328. The place of several prepositions which are common in the English, and other languages, is supplied in the Isizulu by the use of the locative case; thus,
Usezinkomeni, he is with or among the cattle; baya emfuleni, they went to the river; basemfuleni, they are at the river.
§ 329. In addition to those adverbs which are given as prepositions also, in the above list, we might, perhaps, name other words, with equal propriety, such as kude, kufuphi, and katyana; unless they are to be counted as adjectives in such phrases as,
Ikude naye, it is far from him; bakude kumi, they are far from me; ukufuphi nabo, thou art near to them.

Zulu Adverbs


CHAPTER VI.

ADVERBS.

§ 318. In the Zulu language the necessity for some adverbs is superseded by the use of certain verbs, which involve the force of what is often expressed by the use of an adverb in some other languages; thus, lunga, be right, good, do well; andulela, go before, be first ; sandu, sandu kufika, arrive recently; ponsa or citya, ngi ponsu kufa, I am almost dead, I scarcely escape dying; nga citya kuwa, I nearly fell; tyetya ubuye, return quickly, i. e., make haste and return; buya ufunde, read again, i. e., return and read.

§ 319. Most of the adverbs in the Isizulu, like many in other languages, are derived or compounded from other words : —

1. From a verb ; as, kusasa, early, from ukusa, to dawn, be light, clear; kuqala, first; qede, after, when; funa, lest.

2. From a noun ; as, mandulo, first, and endulo, anciently, from indulo, antiquity, and this, from the verb andula, be first ; endle, abroad, in the field; amanga, no, falsely; imbala, indeed; emini, in the day time, open day, midday ; emuva, emva, or emveni, from an obsolete noun, umuva, the rear, after, and this noun from the verb ukuva, to come, be formed, appear, follow after, abound.

3. From an adjective; as,
Kakhulu, greatly; kanye, once; kaningi, often, frequently.

4. From a pronoun; as,
Khona, then, there; loku, whereas, since, when; kaloku, now.

5. From a preposition and a noun ; as, ngemihla (nga- imihla), daily, i.e., by days ; ngamandla (nga-amandla), powerfully; ngamabomu (nga-arnabomu), and ngesibomu (nga- isibomu), designedly ; namhla (na-umhla), to-day.

6. From a noun and an adjective; as, endawonye, together, in one place, from indao-inye; ‘nyakenye, a year ago, last year, from inyaka-inye; umhlaumbi, or, plural, imihlairnbi, perhaps, from umhla, day, and umbi, from mbili, two, secondary; hence, another, some, some day or other ; katisimbe, perhaps, probably, from isikhathi, time, and simbe, and this, too, from mbili, a secondary, i.e., some other time.
 
7. From a preposition and an adjective ; as, kuhle (ku-hle),well; kuningi, plentifully; kakhulu (gen. ka,-khulu), greatly.

8. From a preposition and an adverb ; as, nakanye, never; ngaphi? where? whither?

9. Some adverbs and a few prepositions are derived from nouns, and likewise from adjectives, by prefixing the particle pha, which corresponds nearly to the English prefix be, in be-fore, be-neath ; as in, phandle (pha-endle\ wdthout, outside; phezulu (pha-izulu), above ; phakathi (pha-kathi, the root of umkathi, space, isikhathi, time), within ; phambili and phambi (pha-mbili), before, in front, beyond ; phansi, beneath; phesheya, beyond (the river); phakade, for a long time.

Rem. 1. — Any adjective may be used adverbially, by prefixing the particle ka; thus de, long, kade, far; khulu, great, kakhulu, greatly.

Rem. 2. — The nga which is often coupled with an adverb, or a preposition, serves sometimes as a mere expletive, and sometimes for emphasis to strengthen the force of the following word.

Rem. 3. — Umhlaumbi, plural, imihlaimhi, belongs to the Kafir or Xosa dialect, while its synonym katisimbe belongs to the Isizulu. (See above, 6.)

Rem. 4. — a. The paragogic particle ke is an expletive suffix, carrying the accent forward to the final syllable of the word to which it is sub-joined, and having the force of accordingly, then, thus, now, therefore; as, hambake, go then. (§214., Rem. 2.)

b. The particles nje and bo are also often used us expletives after other words, though rarely subjoined; — the former, nje, in the sense of thus, so, merely, now, just, simply for the sake of it; thus, ngiyahamba nje, I just go, I am walking just for the sake of walking ; — the latter, bo, in the sense of indeed, of course, then, there ; thus, qabo, no indeed; sukani bo, get away there.

§ 320. Adverbs may be divided into several classes, of which the principal are the following: —

I. Adverbs of Time.

Emini, loc. c. of imini, day,                                                            At mid-day.
Endulo, loc. c. of indulo, antiquity,                                            in ancient time.
Futhi,                                                                                                    again, often.
Intambama, noun,                                                                           towards evening.
Izolo, noun,                                                                                         yesterday.
Kade, ka-de,                                                                                       long ago, just now.
Kaloku, ka-loku,                                                                                now.
Kaloku nje,                                                                                          just now.
Kamsinyane, ka-masinyane,                                                        immediately
Kaningi, ka-ningi,                                                                              much often.
Kanye, kunye, okanye, ka-nye, etc.,                                          once, together.
Kho,                                                                                                       present, here, there.
Khona, kho-na,                                                                                  now, then, when.
Konje, ko-nje,                                                                                    just now, speedily.
Kuphela, v. uku phela, to end,                                                     finally.
Kusasa, v. uku-sa-sa, yet dawning,                                            early dawn.
Kusihlwa, v. sa-ihlwa, yet declining,                                          dusk of evening.
Kutangi,                                                                                                day before yesterday.   
Kuqala, v. uku qala, to begin,                                                       first.
Loku, la-uku,                                                                                       then, when, since.
Mandulo, n. plural, amandulo,                                                    at first.
Manje, ma-nje or -anje,                                                                 this moment.
Masinyane, ma-sinyane,                                                               soon, speedily.
Nakanye, na-kanye,                                                                        decidedly, never.
Namhla, na-umhla, with day,                                                       today.
Naphakade,                                                                                        ever.
Ngemihla, nga-imihla, by days,                                                   daily.
Ngomso, nga-umso, dawning,                                                    tomorrow.
Nxa, n. inxa, side, sake, cause,                                                    when, if.
Phakade, pha-kade,                                                                        long time.
Qede, v. uku qeda, to finish,                                                        after, when.

II. Adverbs of Place.

Apa, or lapha, a- or la- pha,                                                          Here.
Apo, or lapho, a- or la- pho,                                                         there.
Apaya, or laphaya, apa- or lapha- ya,                                       yonder.
Eduze,                                                                                                  near.
Emva, loc. c. of obs. n. umva, rear,                                            behind, after.
Endawonye, n. and adj. indao-inye,                                          together.
Endle, loc. c. of n. indle, field,                                                      out, abroad.
Ezansi, loc. c. of obs. n. izansi, sand,                                         below.
Katyana, dim. of kati, umkati, space,                                        distant, far.
Ko, or khona,                                                                                     here, there.
Khona lapha,                                                                                      just here.
Khona lapho,                                                                                      just there.
Kude, ku-de,                                                                                      far, far away.
Kunye, or kanye,                                                                               together.
Kufuphi, ku-fuphi, short,                                                               shortly, near.
Malungana, ma-lungana, v.                                                          opposite to, near.
Neno, na-enu,                                                                                   this side (of)
ngalapha,                                                                                            here, this way.
Ngalapho,                                                                                           there, that way.
Nganeno, nga-neno,                                                                       on this side.
Nganxanye, nga-inxa inye,                                                           partially, aside.
Phakathi, pha-kathi, umkati, space,                                          in the midst, within.
Phambili, pha-mbili,                                                                        before, beyond.
Phandle, pha-endle, in the field,                                                without, abroad.
Phansi, pha-nsi, or -ansi, sand,                                                    down, below.
Phezulu, pha-izulu, heaven,                                                         up, above.

III. Adverbs of Manner.

Imbala, n. from bala, make clear,                                               Indeed, truly
Impela, n. from uku phela, to end,                                            verily, utterly.
Kahle, or kuhle, ka- or ku -hle, nice,                                          well, nicely.
Kakhulu, ka-khulu, great,                                                              greatly, very, especially.
Kabi, or kubi, ka- or ku -bi, bad,                                                  bad poorly.
Kambe, ka-mbe,                                                                               ofcourse, naturally.
Kanjalo, ka-njalo,                                                                              so, again, likewise.
Kangaka, ka-ngaka,                                                                         so much, thus, so.
Ke, ukuka, to reach,                                                                         accordingly, therefore.
Nja, nje,                                                                                               thus, so, just so.
Njalo, nja-lo,                                                                                      so, thus, and so on.
Njenga, nje-nga,                                                                               accordingly, like as.
Njengaloku, njenga-loku,                                                              like unto, just as.
Ngaka, nga-ka,                                                                                   such, so much.
Ngesibomu, or ngamabomu,                                                       on purpose, wilfully.
Ze,                                                                                                          empty, naked, vain.
Qata,                                                                                                     quite, wholly.

IV. Interrogative Adverbs.

Ini na? i-, it, -ni, what? -na = ?                                                     What? Why? Whether?
Kanjani na ? ka-njani na ?                                                             how? Like what?
Kangakanani na ?                                                                          how much?
Na?                                                                                                inter. Particle =?
Njani na ? nja-ni-na ?                                                                     like what? How?
Ngani na? ngani-na?                                                                      with what? Why?
Ngakanani na ? nga-ka-na-ni-na ?                                                 how much?
Nini na? ni-ni-na?                                                                          when?
Phi na? or ngaphi na?                                                                     where? Whither?
Po? poge? ini po? po ini na?                                                           why? Why then?


V. Numeral Adverbs.

Kanye, ka-nye, one,                                                                      Once.
Kabili, ka-bili, two,                                                                        twice.
Kathathu,                                                                                         thrice.
Kane,                                                                                                 four times.
Kahlanu, or kwa 'sihlanu,                                                              five times.
Katatisitupa, or kwa 'situpa,                                                         six times.
Kwa sikhombisa,                                                                               seven times.
Kwa shiyangalombili,                                                                      eight times.
Kwa shiyagalolunye,                                                                       nine times.
Kwa yishumi,                                                                                      Ten times.
Kwa yikhulu,                                                                                       a hundred times.
Kwa yinkulungwane,                                                                      a thousand times.
VI. Various kinds of Adverbs.
Ai, or hhayi,                                                                                        No.
Aitye, ai-tye,                                                                                       not so, no.
Amanga, n. pi. from uku unga, to beguile,                              not so, its false.
Ehe,                                                                                                       yes.
Ewe,                                                                                                      yes.
Iji, or ijile, i, he, and jila, nod,                                                       yes, truly.
Imihlaimbi, imihla-imbi,                                                                 perhaps.
Isibili,                                                                                                     truly, very.
Ingabe, i, it, -nga, may, -be, be,                                                  perhaps.
Kanti, ka, -nti, or -anti, the contrary,                                        whereas, but.
Katisimbe, isikati-esimbe,                                                             perhaps, probably.
Kodwa, ka-udwa,                                                                             only, but.
Kumbe, ku-mbe,                                                                              probably.                                                                            
Phela, V. uku phela, to conclude,                                               then, ofcourse.
Umhlaumbi, umhla-umbi,                                                             perhaps.
Yebo, ye-bo,                                                                                       yes, indeed!
ca, or cabo,                                                                                         no.
qa, or qabo,                                                                                        no.

§ 321. There is a class of words in the Zulu language which might be called Pronominal Adverbs, or Pronomino-Locative Adverbs, since they are composed in part of pronouns, and are used to point out the locality of a person or thing, as being here, or there, or there yonder ; thus,
Nangu, here he is ; nango, there he is ; nanguya, there he is in the distance.

§ 322. These pronominal adverbs consist of the preposition na, and a pronoun of the simple form, together, in most cases, with some epenthetic euphonic medial, as ng, m, n, ns, or nt; thus,
Nangu (=na-ng-u), even he, here he is: namha (= na-m-ba), even they, here they are. Here the office of ng and m is merely to soften and facilitate the combination na-u, and na-ba, in accordance with principles already stated. (§ 24., 32., 35.)

Rem. 1. — Pronominal adverbs for nouns of the fourth class require no euphonic medial, since the two essential elements are easily united and enunciated without the intervention of any other sound; thus, nasi [isibuko), here it is (the glass); nazi (izibuko), here they are (the glasses). Sometimes, but not always, the pronominal adverb of the eighth class employs a medial n before the k; thus, nanku or naku (ukuna), here it is (rain). When the incipient of the noun contains the n, this sound is generally introduced, as by attraction, into the pronominal adverb; thus, nanzi (izinkomo), here they are (cattle). (§36.)

Rem. 2, — In the pronominal adverb for nouns of the second class, plural, we have, sometimes, the euphonic medial ng; but more frequently, in pure Zulu, we have the sharper corresponding equivalent nk; thus, nanga or nanka (amadoda), here they are (the men). And in the singular of the sixth class we sometimes hear nanku instead of the softer and more usual nangu (umuthi), here it is (the tree, or medicine, etc.).


Rem. 3. — In the singular of the third class, and in the plural of the sixth, we have the medial ns; thus, nansi (inkomo), here it is (the cow); nansi (imithi), here they are (the trees). In the singular of the second and fifth classes, we have the medial nt, and the pronouns i and u; thus, nanti (ithole), here it is; nantu (uti), here it is; though in the Xhosa dialect, we find nali and nalu.

§ 323. These pronominal adverbs put on different forms not only to accord with the number and class of the noun referred to, but to express, in some measure, also the comparative nearness or distance of the person or thing spoken of; thus,

Nangu, here he is ; nango, there he is ; nanguya, there he is in the distance; so, namba, nambo, nambaya.

§ 324. The common form of these words, with the corresponding import, may be seen by a glance at the following —

Table of Pronomino-Locative Adverbs.

SINGULAR.                                                                                          PLURAL,
Here he.               There he.            Yonder                                 
she, or                  she, or               he, she, or                     Here                     There                    Yonder
it is.                        it is.                        it is.                       they are.              they are.              they are.
1 Nangu,              nango.                  nanguya;                  namba.                 nambo,                 nambaya.
2 Nanti,                nanto,                   nantiya;                   nanka,                   nanko,                  nankaya.
3 Nansi,                nanso,                   nansiya;                 nanzi,                    nanzo,                   nanziya.
4 Nasi,                   naso.                     nasiya;                   nazi,                       nazo,                     naziya.
5 Nantu.               nanto.                   nantuya;                   nazi,                       nazo,                     naziya.
6 Nangu,              nango,                  nanguya;                  nansi,                    nanso,                   nansiya.
7 Nambu,            nambo,                 nambuya;                 nambu,                 nambo.                 nambuya.
8 Nakhu,              nakho,                  nakhuya;                  nakhu,                  nakho,                  nakhuya.

§ 325. 1. For the first and second person, singular, use is sometimes made of the forms used for the third person, singular, first class; thus,

Nangu (mina), here I am; nangu (wena), here thou art. And for the first and second person, plural, use is sometimes made of the forms used for the third person, plural, first class; thus, namba (thina), here we are; nambo (nina), there ye are.

2. But instead of these forms for the first and second persons, the pronouns are often used with the adverbs lapha, lapho, and laphaya; thus,

Ngilapha, here I am; nilapho. there ye are. Or, instead of the adverb lapha, we may have the preposition na, with the conjunctive form of the required pronoun; thus, unami, thou (art here) with me; nginenu, I (am here) with you.

Rem. — The pronouns of the third person are sometimes used like those of the first and second, with the adverbs lapha, lapho, and laphaya; thus, balapha, they are here; balapho, they are there.